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Am 4. Juli beschloss der "Continental Congress" eine Resolution, die ein Kommittee autorisierte, ein Wappen für die Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zu. Flaggen und Siegel der Bundesstaaten[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. (in alphabetischer Reihenfolge: Name des Staates, Reihenfolge des Beitritts (R.), Gründerstaaten fett). Flagge · Siegel / Wappen, Beitritt, aktuelle Flagge eingeführt , Bundesstaat . Das linke obere Wappen steht für die USA, das rechte obere für Kalifornien. Auf dieser Seite von Amerika-auf-einen-Blick finden Sie allgemeine Daten wie Fläche, Einwohnerzahlen oder Bruttosozialprodukt sowie eine Landkarte der. Die Auslegerfahne ist eine Hissfahne im Hochformat mit zusätzlichem Hohlsaum oben. Nach anderen Verschwörungstheorien war in den ersten Entwürfen des Siegels der Vogel auf der Vorderseite kein Adler, sondern ein Phönix , ein freimaurerisches Symbol für Wiederauferstehung und Erneuerung. Schlechteste Platzierung ist der siebte Platz der nach einem Remis und zwei Niederlagen in den Gruppenspielen sowie dem Sieg gegen Nordkorea, den Gruppensieger der Gruppe C erreicht wurde. Dezember Maine Das wohl auffälligste Muster enthielt der Entwurf der 38 Star Flag von , bei dem ein zentraler Stern für Colorado von zwei Ringen aus Sternen umgeben war. Januar wurde Andi Sullivan nachnominiert. Mit dieser Flagge wurde auch erstmals die Anordnung der Sterne eindeutig definiert. Dezember um Nach fünf neuen Beitritten und einem neuen Flaggengesetz, das die Streifen auf 13 begrenzte und die Einführung neuer Sterne für neue Bundesstaaten im Gösch auf den dem Beitritt folgenden 4. Juni bis zum 3. Dort erwies sich der Supremateid als problematisch, weshalb er nach Schottland weiterreiste. Juli in Salt Lake City , die nächste wird stattfinden. Juli wurde ein vorläufiger Kader mit 25 Spielerinnen für das Tournament of Nations benannt. Für zwei Freundschaftsspiele im April wurden am Juni vom Kongress angenommen. Darüber hinaus lehrt die Kirche, dass alle Mitglieder zu den Heiligen Gottes gehören und das Potential besitzen, anderen als Beispiel zu wrc portugal. Der durch diesen geschobene Ausleger lässt die Fahne auch bei Game of thrones staffelfinale gut sichtbar bleiben. Eigentlich zu schade als Wegwerfartikel sind unsere Papierfähnchen. Sons of Liberty waren eine Gruppe von jungen und enthusiastischen Patrioten vor der Revolution. Eine Kathedrale dient als Mutterkirche einer Diözese und ist der Sitz des Bischofs, behaust aber oftmals lucky kitty eigene Gemeinde. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 7. In anderen Projekten Commons. Die derzeitiger Präsident ist Gay Fussball live online schauen Jennings. Wie in anderen Vorständen auch, ist es üblich, Schriftführer und Schatzmeister zu wählen. Chicago school economists like Milton FriedmanDrake online casino review M. More than publications are produced in Spanish, the second most commonly neteller einzahlung language online casino games with the best bonuses the United States behind English. However, with the fall of the French monarchy and later Empire there is not currently a Fons Honorum power to dispense and control honors to strictly enforce heraldic law. Sovereign states Dependent territories. Heraldic designs came into general purchase online casino software among western nobility in the 12th century. Its purpose was supposedly to marshal an expedition to fully conquer Ireland that never materialized. None at federal level [b]. Science and technology in Argentina. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to schweiz 1 liga surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants, especially in the knightly tournamentin Old French cote a armer. Virgin Islands perpeople schweizer lottozahlen the lowest was in Puerto Rico perpeople. La Rioja Province Argentina. Labor force participation rate. District of Columbia Apr.

The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.

The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.

Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.

The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements [] and a relative decline in unemployment.

The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during , [] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.

Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont. The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast.

The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types. To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.

Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate. The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.

Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas. Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation , [] [] and international responses to global warming.

White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend.

The drop in the U. Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.

China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the s. The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing.

In , 33, refugees were resettled in the United States. This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the first time in decades.

In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston.

English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.

Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan [] is officially recognized by American Samoa.

Chamorro [] is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: The First Amendment of the U.

Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment. As with other Western countries, the U.

Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.

Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.

By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.

While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.

The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Hodges , and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.

Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.

Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.

America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.

From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Health-care coverage in the United States is a combination of public and private efforts and is not universal.

American public education is operated by state and local governments, regulated by the United States Department of Education through restrictions on federal grants.

In most states, children are required to attend school from the age of six or seven generally, kindergarten or first grade until they turn 18 generally bringing them through twelfth grade , the end of high school ; some states allow students to leave school at 16 or The United States has many competitive private and public institutions of higher education.

Of Americans 25 and older, As for public expenditures on higher education, the U. It is a representative democracy , "in which majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law ".

In the American federalist system , citizens are usually subject to three levels of government: In almost all cases, executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district.

There is no proportional representation at the federal level, and it is rare at lower levels. The House of Representatives has voting members, each representing a congressional district for a two-year term.

House seats are apportioned among the states by population every tenth year. At the census , seven states had the minimum of one representative, while California, the most populous state, had The Senate has members with each state having two senators, elected at-large to six-year terms; one-third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.

The District of Columbia and the five major U. The President is not elected by direct vote , but by an indirect electoral college system in which the determining votes are apportioned to the states and the District of Columbia.

The state governments are structured in roughly similar fashion; Nebraska uniquely has a unicameral legislature. Some state judges and cabinet officers are appointed by the governors of the respective states, while others are elected by popular vote.

The original text of the Constitution establishes the structure and responsibilities of the federal government and its relationship with the individual states.

Article One protects the right to the "great writ" of habeas corpus. All laws and governmental procedures are subject to judicial review and any law ruled by the courts to be in violation of the Constitution is voided.

The principle of judicial review, not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was established by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison [] in a decision handed down by Chief Justice John Marshall.

The United States is a federal republic of 50 states , a federal district , five territories and several uninhabited island possessions.

These are divided into subdivisions of counties and independent cities. Each state has presidential electors equal to the number of their Representatives and Senators in Congress; the District of Columbia has three because of the 23rd Amendment.

Congressional Districts are reapportioned among the states following each decennial Census of Population. Each state then draws single-member districts to conform with the census apportionment.

The total number of voting Representatives is There are also 6 non-voting representatives who represent the District of Columbia and the five major U.

American Indians are U. Congress and the federal courts. Like the states they have a great deal of autonomy, but also like the states, tribes are not allowed to make war, engage in their own foreign relations, or print and issue currency.

Citizenship is granted at birth in all states, the District of Columbia, and all major U. The United States has operated under a two-party system for most of its history.

Since the general election of , the major parties have been the Democratic Party , founded in , and the Republican Party , founded in The President and Vice-president are elected through the Electoral College system.

Within American political culture , the center-right Republican Party is considered " conservative " and the center-left Democratic Party is considered " liberal ".

The " red states " of the South and parts of the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains are relatively conservative. Republican Donald Trump , the winner of the presidential election , is serving as the 45th President of the United States.

The Senate consists of 53 Republicans, and 45 Democrats with 2 Independents who caucus with the Democrats; the House consists of Democrats and Republicans.

The United States has an established structure of foreign relations. Almost all countries have embassies in Washington, D. Likewise, nearly all nations host American diplomatic missions.

By contrast, private overseas giving by Americans is relatively generous. These are Pacific island nations, once part of the U.

Taxes in the United States are levied at the federal, state, and local government levels. These include taxes on income, payroll, property, sales, imports, estates and gifts, as well as various fees.

Taxation in the United States is based on citizenship, not residency. It is the only country in the world, other than Eritrea , to do so.

In taxes collected by federal, state and municipal governments amounted to Major categories of FY spending included: In , the armed forces had 1.

The Reserves and National Guard brought the total number of troops to 2. The Department of Defense also employed about , civilians, not including contractors.

Military service is voluntary, though conscription may occur in wartime through the Selective Service System. The military operates bases and facilities abroad, [] and maintains deployments greater than active duty personnel in 25 foreign countries.

Marshals Service have specialized duties, including protecting civil rights , national security and enforcing U. State courts conduct most criminal trials; federal courts handle certain designated crimes as well as certain appeals from the state criminal courts.

Plea bargaining is very common; the vast majority of criminal cases in the country are settled by plea bargain rather than jury trial. In , there were 15, murders which was 1, more than in , a In , the US murder rate of 5.

In , there were 17, murders and the murder rate was 5. Of those arrested for serious violent crimes in , Non-gun murders reached a peak in of 8, and declined in most years until the early s with 4, in Capital punishment is sanctioned in the United States for certain federal and military crimes, and also at the state level in 30 states.

Supreme Court ruling striking down arbitrary imposition of the death penalty. In , that Court ruled that, under appropriate circumstances, capital punishment may constitutionally be imposed.

Since the decision there have been more than 1, executions, a majority of these taking place in three states: Texas, Virginia, and Oklahoma. In , the country had the fifth-highest number of executions in the world, following China, Iran , Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.

The United States has the highest documented incarceration rate and largest prison population in the world. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision in December , the lowest rate observed since Virgin Islands per , people and the lowest was in Puerto Rico per , people.

The United States has a capitalist mixed economy [ citation needed ] which is fueled by abundant natural resources and high productivity.

The nominal GDP of the U. The United States is the largest importer of goods and second-largest exporter , though exports per capita are relatively low.

In , the total U. In , the private sector was estimated to constitute Coca-Cola is the most recognized soft drink company in the world. Chemical products are the leading manufacturing field.

The National Mining Association provides data pertaining to coal and minerals that include beryllium , copper , lead , magnesium , zinc , titanium and others.

The largest private employment sector is health care and social assistance, with It has a smaller welfare state and redistributes less income through government action than European nations tend to.

The United States is the only advanced economy that does not guarantee its workers paid vacation [] and is one of just a few countries in the world without paid family leave as a legal right, with the others being Papua New Guinea , Suriname and Liberia.

It was fourth in productivity per hour, behind those two countries and the Netherlands. The — global recession significantly affected the United States, with output still below potential according to the Congressional Budget Office.

The United States has been a leader in technological innovation since the late 19th century and scientific research since the midth century. Methods for producing interchangeable parts were developed by the U.

War Department by the Federal Armories during the first half of the 19th century. This technology, along with the establishment of a machine tool industry, enabled the U.

Factory electrification in the early 20th century and introduction of the assembly line and other labor-saving techniques created the system called mass production.

In , Alexander Graham Bell was awarded the first U. In the early 20th century, the automobile companies of Ransom E.

Olds and Henry Ford popularized the assembly line. The Wright brothers , in , made the first sustained and controlled heavier-than-air powered flight.

The invention of the transistor in the s, a key active component in practically all modern electronics , led to many technological developments and a significant expansion of the U.

These advancements then lead to greater personalization of technology for individual use. In the 21st century, approximately two-thirds of research and development funding comes from the private sector.

After years of stagnant growth, in , according to the Census, median household income reached a record high after two consecutive years of record growth, although income inequality remains at record highs with top fifth of earners taking home more than half of all overall income.

This is largely because at-risk workers get almost no government support and are further set back by a very weak collective bargaining system.

Assets owned by Americans lost about a quarter of their value. There were about , sheltered and unsheltered homeless persons in the U.

In , the region with the lowest poverty rate was New Hampshire 7. The civil airline industry is entirely privately owned and has been largely deregulated since , while most major airports are publicly owned.

The United States energy market is about 29, terawatt hours per year. The remainder was supplied by nuclear power and renewable energy sources.

For decades, nuclear power has played a limited role relative to many other developed countries, in part because of public perception in the wake of a accident.

In , several applications for new nuclear plants were filed. Issues that affect water supply in the United States include droughts in the West, water scarcity , pollution , a backlog of investment, concerns about the affordability of water for the poorest, and a rapidly retiring workforce.

Increased variability and intensity of rainfall as a result of climate change is expected to produce both more severe droughts and flooding, with potentially serious consequences for water supply and for pollution from combined sewer overflows.

The United States is home to many cultures and a wide variety of ethnic groups, traditions, and values. Core American culture was established by Protestant British colonists and shaped by the frontier settlement process, with the traits derived passed down to descendants and transmitted to immigrants through assimilation.

Americans have traditionally been characterized by a strong work ethic , competitiveness, and individualism, [] as well as a unifying belief in an "American creed " emphasizing liberty, equality, private property, democracy, rule of law, and a preference for limited government.

According to a British study, Americans gave 1. The American Dream , or the perception that Americans enjoy high social mobility , plays a key role in attracting immigrants.

Mainstream American cuisine is similar to that in other Western countries. Wheat is the primary cereal grain with about three-quarters of grain products made of wheat flour [] and many dishes use indigenous ingredients, such as turkey, venison, potatoes, sweet potatoes, corn, squash, and maple syrup which were consumed by Native Americans and early European settlers.

Characteristic dishes such as apple pie, fried chicken, pizza, hamburgers, and hot dogs derive from the recipes of various immigrants. French fries, Mexican dishes such as burritos and tacos, and pasta dishes freely adapted from Italian sources are widely consumed.

American eating habits owe a great deal to that of their British culinary roots with some variations. Although American lands could grow newer vegetables that Britain could not, most colonists would not eat these new foods until accepted by Europeans.

Hess stated in In the 18th and early 19th centuries, American art and literature took most of its cues from Europe. William Faulkner , Ernest Hemingway and John Steinbeck are often named among the most influential writers of the 20th century.

The transcendentalists , led by Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson , established the first major American philosophical movement. In the 20th century, the work of W.

Quine and Richard Rorty , and later Noam Chomsky , brought analytic philosophy to the fore of American philosophical academia.

John Rawls and Robert Nozick led a revival of political philosophy , and Martha Nussbaum is its most important figure today.

Cornel West and Judith Butler have led a continental tradition in American philosophical academia. Chicago school economists like Milton Friedman , James M.

Buchanan , and Thomas Sowell have affected various fields in social and political philosophy. In the visual arts, the Hudson River School was a midth-century movement in the tradition of European naturalism.

Oberhalb des Adlers sind 13 pentagrammartige Sterne im goldenen Kranz in Form eines Hexagramms auf hellblauem Grund angeordnet.

Insofern symbolisiert sie die Freiheit der Vereinigten Staaten. Der Spruch ist ein abgewandeltes Zitat aus Vergils Aeneis. Der Schriftzug Novus ordo seclorum lat.

Vor allem im Ein Komitee bestehend aus Benjamin Franklin , John Adams und Thomas Jefferson , die alle drei heraldisch unerfahren waren, wurde beauftragt, einen Entwurf zu stellen.

Sein Bericht wurde am Juni vom Kongress angenommen. Das Siegel dient mehreren Verwendungszwecken: Dies war Ausgangspunkt verschiedener Diskussionen.

Carr vermutet in seinem Buch z. Allerdings wurde das Siegel der USA , d.

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Countries of South America: Argentine peso 1 January Mauricio Macri 22 November , President of Argentina. Location of Argentina in orthographic projection showing its territorial claims.

Puente de la Mujer. Sierra de La Ventana. Church of La Merced. Grandes plantaciones de te y yerba mate cubren todos los alrededores de la ciudad de Virasoro.

La Rioja Province Argentina. Tren a las nubes. Paris Texas Hotel de Cafayate. Fundado por Sabina Rinaldi. Santiago del Estero Province. Cuesta del obispo Salta Province.

Cabra Corral Salta Province. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements.

Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups.

As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west. A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.

With the British colonization of Georgia in , the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were established.

Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed. Excluding the Native Americans , who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.

Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.

During his third and final voyage , Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.

After having arrived in the Hawaiian islands in , Captain Cook sailed north and then northeast to explore the west coast of North America north of the Spanish settlements in Alta California.

Cook would be killed days later. The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power.

Americans had developed an ideology of " republicanism " asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures.

They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.

The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, which recognized, in a long preamble, that all men are created equal and endowed by their Creator with unalienable rights and that those rights were not being protected by Great Britain, and declared, in the words of the resolution, that the thirteen United Colonies formed an independent nation and had no further allegiance to the British crown.

The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day. Britain recognized the independence of the United States following its defeat at Yorktown in Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of in writing the United States Constitution , ratified in state conventions in The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in George Washington , who had led the revolutionary army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution.

The Bill of Rights , forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in , after , cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South , and along with it, the slave population.

In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism ; [] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.

From to , Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from to The Trail of Tears in the s exemplified the Indian removal policy that resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations.

The California Gold Rush of —49 spurred western migration and the creation of additional western states. Nonetheless, conflicts and state-sanctioned murder, including the California Genocide , continued throughout the West into the s.

Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.

But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.

With the election of Abraham Lincoln , the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party , conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America the "South" , while the federal government the " Union " maintained that secession was illegal.

The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately , soldiers as well as many civilians.

Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April , each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment , which prohibited slavery.

Three amendments were added to the U. Constitution in the years after the war: The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power [] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.

Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans.

They persisted until the Compromise of when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of Southern white Democrats, calling themselves " Redeemers ", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction.

From to , so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation , especially in the South.

The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.

Virgin Islands from Denmark in Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists.

Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt , John D. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. Morgan playing a notable role.

Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry.

The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I , in , until when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I , helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers.

However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.

After his election as president in , Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal , which included the establishment of the Social Security system.

As an Allied victory was won in Europe , a international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter , which became active after the war.

After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union jockeyed for power during what became known as the Cold War , driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism [] and, according to the school of geopolitics , a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps.

They dominated the military affairs of Europe , with the U. The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments.

At home, the U. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of , sought to end racial discrimination.

The launch of a " War on Poverty " expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid , two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.

The s and early s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in , President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms.

The concept of Pax Americana , which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.

Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield , a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm , in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.

Due to the dot-com boom , stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan , and reduced social welfare spending , the s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.

The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements [] and a relative decline in unemployment.

The law caused a significant reduction in the number and percentage of people without health insurance, with 24 million covered during , [] but remains controversial due to its impact on healthcare costs, insurance premiums, and economic performance.

American forces in Iraq were withdrawn in large numbers in and , and the war in the region was declared formally over in December Trump is both the oldest and wealthiest person elected president in United States history.

Alaska , separated from the contiguous United States by Canada, is the largest state at , square miles 1,, The ranking varies depending on how two territories disputed by China and India are counted, and how the total size of the United States is measured.

The coastal plain of the Atlantic seaboard gives way further inland to deciduous forests and the rolling hills of the Piedmont.

The flat, fertile prairie of the Great Plains stretches to the west, interrupted by a highland region in the southeast. The United States, with its large size and geographic variety, includes most climate types.

To the east of the th meridian , the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south. Much of the Western mountains have an alpine climate.

The climate is arid in the Great Basin, desert in the Southwest, Mediterranean in coastal California , and oceanic in coastal Oregon and Washington and southern Alaska.

Most of Alaska is subarctic or polar. Hawaii and the southern tip of Florida are tropical , as are the populated territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific.

There are 59 national parks and hundreds of other federally managed parks, forests, and wilderness areas.

Environmental issues have been on the national agenda since Environmental controversies include debates on oil and nuclear energy , dealing with air and water pollution, the economic costs of protecting wildlife, logging and deforestation , [] [] and international responses to global warming.

White Americans mostly European ancestry group with Census, Hispanic and Latino Americans are counted as an ethnic group, not a "racial" group , and third-largest ancestry group.

The population growth of Hispanic and Latino Americans the terms are officially interchangeable is a major demographic trend. The drop in the U.

Minorities as defined by the Census Bureau as all those beside non-Hispanic, non-multiracial whites constituted The United States has a birth rate of 13 per 1,, which is 5 births below the world average.

China, India, and the Philippines have been in the top four sending countries every year since the s.

The percentage of immigrants who are Asian is increasing while the percentage who are Hispanic is decreasing. In , 33, refugees were resettled in the United States.

This was fewer than were resettled in the rest of the world for the first time in decades. In , incorporated municipalities had populations over ,, nine cities had more than one million residents, and four global cities had over two million New York , Los Angeles , Chicago , and Houston.

English American English is the de facto national language. Although there is no official language at the federal level, some laws—such as U.

Both Hawaiian and English are official languages in Hawaii , by state law. Several insular territories grant official recognition to their native languages, along with English: Samoan [] is officially recognized by American Samoa.

Chamorro [] is an official language of Guam. The most widely taught foreign languages in the United States, in terms of enrollment numbers from kindergarten through university undergraduate studies, are: The First Amendment of the U.

Constitution guarantees the free exercise of religion and forbids Congress from passing laws respecting its establishment.

As with other Western countries, the U. Irreligion is growing rapidly among Americans under According to a survey, Protestantism is the largest Christian religious grouping in the United States, accounting for almost half of all Americans.

Baptists collectively form the largest branch of Protestantism at Rhode Island has the highest percentage of Catholics, with 40 percent of the total population.

By contrast, religion plays the least important role in New England and in the Western United States. Wade , a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.

While the abortion rate is falling, the abortion ratio of per 1, live births and abortion rate of 15 per 1, women aged 15—44 remain higher than those of most Western nations.

The total fertility rate TFR in was 1. Hodges , and it is legal for same-sex couples to adopt. Polygamy is illegal throughout the U. The United States had a life expectancy of The recent decline is largely due to sharp increases in the drug overdose and suicide rates.

Life expectancy was highest among Asians and Hispanics and lowest among blacks. In , coronary artery disease , lung cancer , stroke , chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases , and traffic accidents caused the most years of life lost in the U.

Low back pain , depression , musculoskeletal disorders , neck pain , and anxiety caused the most years lost to disability. The most deleterious risk factors were poor diet, tobacco smoking , obesity, high blood pressure , high blood sugar , physical inactivity , and alcohol use.

America solely developed or contributed significantly to 9 of the top 10 most important medical innovations since as ranked by a poll of physicians, while the European Union and Switzerland together contributed to five.

From to , four times more money was invested in private biotechnology companies in America than in Europe. Since the Consulta Araldica , the college of arms of the Kingdom of Italy , was abolished in , personal coats of arms and titles of nobility, though not outlawed, are not recognised.

Coats of arms in Spain were generally left up to the owner themselves, but the design was based on military service and the heritage of their grandparents.

In France , the coat of arms is based on the Fleur-de-lys and the Rule of Tinctures used in English heraldry as well. The Queen of Canada has delegated her prerogative to grant armorial bearings to the Governor General of Canada.

Canada has its own Chief Herald and Herald Chancellor. The crest is thirteen stars breaking through a glory and clouds, displayed with no helm, torse, or mantling unlike most European precedents.

Vermont has both a state seal and a state coat of arms that are independent of one another though both contain a pine tree, a cow and sheaves of grain ; the seal is used to authenticate documents, whilst the heraldic device represents the state itself.

As the papacy is not hereditary, its occupants display their personal arms combined with those of their office. Some popes came from armigerous noble families; others adopted coats of arms during their career in the Church.

The latter typically allude to their ideal of life, or to specific pontifical programmes. His selection of a large letter M for the Virgin Mary was intended to express the message of his strong Marian devotion.

These may be used in countries which otherwise do not use heraldic devices. In countries like Scotland with a strong statutory heraldic authority, arms will need to be officially granted and recorded.

Flags are used to identify ships where they are called ensigns , embassies and such, and they use the same colors and designs found in heraldry, but they are not usually considered to be heraldic.

A country may have both a national flag and a national coat of arms, and the two may not look alike at all. Among the states ruled by communist regimes, emblems resembling the Soviet design were adopted in all the Warsaw Pact states except Czechoslovakia and Poland.

Since , some of the ex- Communist states , as Romania or Russia have reused their original pre-communist heraldry, often with only the symbols of monarchy removed.

Other countries such as Belarus or Tajikistan have retained their communist coats of arms or at least kept some of the old heraldry.

With the formation of the modern nation states of the Arab World in the second half of the 20th century, European traditions of heraldry were partially adopted for state emblems.

These emblems often involve the star and crescent symbol taken from the Ottoman flag. Another commonly seen symbol is the eagle, which is a symbol attributed to Saladin , [14] and the hawk of the Qureish.

African flags and emblems after decolonisation often chose emblems based on regional traditions or wildlife. Symbols of a ritual significance according to local custom were generally favoured, such as the leopard in the arms of Benin , Malawi , Somalia , the Democratic Republic of the Congo and, in the form of the black panther, of Gabon.

In Kenya , the Swahili word Harambee lit. In Botswana and Lesotho , meanwhile, the word Pula lit. In the coat of arms of Swaziland , a lion and an elephant serve as supporters.

Japanese emblems, called kamon often abbreviated "mon" , are family badges which often date back to the 7th century, and are used in Japan today.

The Japanese tradition is independent of the European, but many abstract and floral elements are used. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the main element of a heraldic achievement, although "coat of arms" is often erroneously used to refer to its whole [1] [2].

For the whole heraldic symbol, see Achievement heraldry. For the album by Sabaton, see Coat of Arms album. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

List of oldest heraldry. English heraldry , Scottish heraldry , and Welsh heraldry. German heraldry , Norwegian heraldry , Swedish heraldry , Danish heraldry , Finnish heraldry , and Icelandic heraldry.

Spanish heraldry , Russian heraldry , Portuguese heraldry , Hungarian heraldry , Polish heraldry , and Dutch heraldry.

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