Übersetzungen für mercury im Englisch» Deutsch-Wörterbuch von PONS Online :mercury, mercury arc discharge lamp, Mercury, mercury-laced. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'Mercury' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten ✓ Aussprache und. Übersetzung für 'mercury' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch von LANGENSCHEIDT – mit Beispielen, Synonymen und Aussprache.
Like ZnS, HgS crystallizes in two forms , the reddish cubic form and the black zinc blende form. Mercury II salts form a variety of complex derivatives with ammonia.
Mercury fulminate is a detonator widely used in explosives. Organic mercury compounds are historically important but are of little industrial value in the western world.
Mercury II salts are a rare example of simple metal complexes that react directly with aromatic rings. Organomercury compounds are always divalent and usually two-coordinate and linear geometry.
Unlike organocadmium and organozinc compounds, organomercury compounds do not react with water. They usually have the formula HgR 2 , which are often volatile, or HgRX, which are often solids, where R is aryl or alkyl and X is usually halide or acetate.
Methylmercury , a generic term for compounds with the formula CH 3 HgX, is a dangerous family of compounds that are often found in polluted water.
Mercury is used primarily for the manufacture of industrial chemicals or for electrical and electronic applications. It is used in some thermometers, especially ones which are used to measure high temperatures.
A still increasing amount is used as gaseous mercury in fluorescent lamps , while most of the other applications are slowly phased out due to health and safety regulations and is in some applications replaced with less toxic but considerably more expensive Galinstan alloy.
Mercury and its compounds have been used in medicine, although they are much less common today than they once were, now that the toxic effects of mercury and its compounds are more widely understood.
Mercury is an ingredient in dental amalgams. Thiomersal called Thimerosal in the United States is an organic compound used as a preservative in vaccines , though this use is in decline.
Although it was widely speculated that this mercury-based preservative could cause or trigger autism in children, scientific studies showed no evidence supporting any such link.
Another mercury compound, merbromin Mercurochrome , is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes that is still in use in some countries.
Mercury in the form of one of its common ores, cinnabar, is used in various traditional medicines, especially in traditional Chinese medicine.
Review of its safety has found that cinnabar can lead to significant mercury intoxication when heated, consumed in overdose , or taken long term, and can have adverse effects at therapeutic doses, though effects from therapeutic doses are typically reversible.
Although this form of mercury appears to be less toxic than other forms, its use in traditional Chinese medicine has not yet been justified, as the therapeutic basis for the use of cinnabar is not clear.
Today, the use of mercury in medicine has greatly declined in all respects, especially in developed countries. Thermometers and sphygmomanometers containing mercury were invented in the early 18th and late 19th centuries, respectively.
In the early 21st century, their use is declining and has been banned in some countries, states and medical institutions. In , the U. Senate passed legislation to phase out the sale of non-prescription mercury thermometers.
In , Washington and Maine became the first states to ban mercury blood pressure devices. The FDA has "inadequate data to establish general recognition of the safety and effectiveness" of the mercury ingredients in these products.
Chlorine is produced from sodium chloride common salt, NaCl using electrolysis to separate the metallic sodium from the chlorine gas.
Usually the salt is dissolved in water to produce a brine. By-products of any such chloralkali process are hydrogen H 2 and sodium hydroxide NaOH , which is commonly called caustic soda or lye.
By far the largest use of mercury   in the late 20th century was in the mercury cell process also called the Castner-Kellner process where metallic sodium is formed as an amalgam at a cathode made from mercury; this sodium is then reacted with water to produce sodium hydroxide.
Some medical thermometers , especially those for high temperatures, are filled with mercury; they are gradually disappearing.
In the United States, non-prescription sale of mercury fever thermometers has been banned since Mercury is also found in liquid mirror telescopes.
Some transit telescopes use a basin of mercury to form a flat and absolutely horizontal mirror, useful in determining an absolute vertical or perpendicular reference.
Concave horizontal parabolic mirrors may be formed by rotating liquid mercury on a disk, the parabolic form of the liquid thus formed reflecting and focusing incident light.
Such telescopes are cheaper than conventional large mirror telescopes by up to a factor of , but the mirror cannot be tilted and always points straight up.
Liquid mercury is a part of popular secondary reference electrode called the calomel electrode in electrochemistry as an alternative to the standard hydrogen electrode.
The calomel electrode is used to work out the electrode potential of half cells. In polarography both the dropping mercury electrode  and the hanging mercury drop electrode  use elemental mercury.
This use allows a new uncontaminated electrode to be available for each measurement or each new experiment.
Gaseous mercury is used in mercury-vapor lamps and some " neon sign " type advertising signs and fluorescent lamps.
Those low-pressure lamps emit very spectrally narrow lines, which are traditionally used in optical spectroscopy for calibration of spectral position.
Commercial calibration lamps are sold for this purpose; reflecting a fluorescent ceiling light into a spectrometer is a common calibration practice.
An argon-filled lamp without mercury will have dull spots and will fail to light correctly. The deep violet glow of a mercury vapor discharge in a germicidal lamp , whose spectrum is rich in invisible ultraviolet radiation.
Skin tanner containing a low-pressure mercury vapor lamp and two infrared lamps, which act both as light source and electrical ballast.
The miniaturized Deep Space Atomic Clock is a linear ion-trap-based mercury ion clock, designed for precise and real-time radio navigation in deep space.
The novel use of mercury allows very compact atomic clocks, with low energy requirements, and is therefore ideal for space probes and Mars missions.
Mercury, as thiomersal , is widely used in the manufacture of mascara. In , Minnesota became the first state in the United States to ban intentionally added mercury in cosmetics, giving it a tougher standard than the federal government.
A study in geometric mean urine mercury concentration identified a previously unrecognized source of exposure skin care products to inorganic mercury among New York City residents.
Population-based biomonitoring also showed that mercury concentration levels are higher in consumers of seafood and fish meals.
Mercury II fulminate is a primary explosive which is mainly used as a primer of a cartridge in firearms. Many historic applications made use of the peculiar physical properties of mercury, especially as a dense liquid and a liquid metal:.
Mercury I chloride also known as calomel or mercurous chloride has been used in traditional medicine as a diuretic , topical disinfectant , and laxative.
Mercury II chloride also known as mercuric chloride or corrosive sublimate was once used to treat syphilis along with other mercury compounds , although it is so toxic that sometimes the symptoms of its toxicity were confused with those of the syphilis it was believed to treat.
Blue mass , a pill or syrup in which mercury is the main ingredient, was prescribed throughout the 19th century for numerous conditions including constipation, depression, child-bearing and toothaches.
The mercury-containing organohalide merbromin sometimes sold as Mercurochrome is still widely used but has been banned in some countries such as the U.
Mercury and most of its compounds are extremely toxic and must be handled with care; in cases of spills involving mercury such as from certain thermometers or fluorescent light bulbs , specific cleaning procedures are used to avoid exposure and contain the spill.
Vacuum cleaners and brooms cause greater dispersal of the mercury and should not be used. Afterwards, fine sulfur , zinc , or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam alloy with mercury at ordinary temperatures is sprinkled over the area before itself being collected and properly disposed of.
Cleaning porous surfaces and clothing is not effective at removing all traces of mercury and it is therefore advised to discard these kinds of items should they be exposed to a mercury spill.
Mercury can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes and mercury vapors can be inhaled, so containers of mercury are securely sealed to avoid spills and evaporation.
Heating of mercury, or of compounds of mercury that may decompose when heated, should be carried out with adequate ventilation in order to minimize exposure to mercury vapor.
The most toxic forms of mercury are its organic compounds , such as dimethylmercury and methylmercury. Mercury can cause both chronic and acute poisoning.
Although that can be considered a natural level of exposure, regional or global sources have significant effects.
Volcanic eruptions can increase the atmospheric source by 4—6 times. Natural sources, such as volcanoes , are responsible for approximately half of atmospheric mercury emissions.
The human-generated half can be divided into the following estimated percentages: The above percentages are estimates of the global human-caused mercury emissions in , excluding biomass burning, an important source in some regions.
Recent atmospheric mercury contamination in outdoor urban air was measured at 0. A study measured mercury levels in 12 indoor sites chosen to represent a cross-section of building types, locations and ages in the New York area.
This study found mercury concentrations significantly elevated over outdoor concentrations, at a range of 0. The average was 0.
Mercury also enters into the environment through the improper disposal e. Products containing mercury include: For example, the amount of mercury sold in thermostats in the United States decreased from Most thermometers now use pigmented alcohol instead of mercury, and galinstan alloy thermometers are also an option.
Mercury thermometers are still occasionally used in the medical field because they are more accurate than alcohol thermometers, though both are commonly being replaced by electronic thermometers and less commonly by galinstan thermometers.
Mercury thermometers are still widely used for certain scientific applications because of their greater accuracy and working range. Historically, one of the largest releases was from the Colex plant, a lithium-isotope separation plant at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
The plant operated in the s and s. Records are incomplete and unclear, but government commissions have estimated that some two million pounds of mercury are unaccounted for.
A serious industrial disaster was the dumping of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay, Japan. It is estimated that over 3, people suffered various deformities, severe mercury poisoning symptoms or death from what became known as Minamata disease.
The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals such as mercury from the surrounding soil into its leaves. These are subsequently inhaled during tobacco smoking.
Sediments within large urban-industrial estuaries act as an important sink for point source and diffuse mercury pollution within catchments.
Due to the health effects of mercury exposure, industrial and commercial uses are regulated in many countries. Environmental releases and disposal of mercury are regulated in the U.
Toxic effects include damage to the brain, kidneys and lungs. Mercury poisoning can result in several diseases, including acrodynia pink disease , Hunter-Russell syndrome, and Minamata disease.
Symptoms typically include sensory impairment vision, hearing, speech , disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure.
Case—control studies have shown effects such as tremors, impaired cognitive skills, and sleep disturbance in workers with chronic exposure to mercury vapor even at low concentrations in the range 0.
Occupational exposure has resulted in broad-ranging functional disturbance, including erethism , irritability, excitability, excessive shyness, and insomnia.
With continuing exposure, a fine tremor develops and may escalate to violent muscular spasms. Tremor initially involves the hands and later spreads to the eyelids, lips, and tongue.
Long-term, low-level exposure has been associated with more subtle symptoms of erethism, including fatigue, irritability, loss of memory, vivid dreams and depression.
Research on the treatment of mercury poisoning is limited. Fish and shellfish have a natural tendency to concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury.
Species of fish that are high on the food chain , such as shark , swordfish , king mackerel , bluefin tuna , albacore tuna , and tilefish contain higher concentrations of mercury than others.
As mercury and methylmercury are fat soluble, they primarily accumulate in the viscera , although they are also found throughout the muscle tissue.
Since fish are less efficient at depurating than accumulating methylmercury, fish-tissue concentrations increase over time. Thus species that are high on the food chain amass body burdens of mercury that can be ten times higher than the species they consume.
This process is called biomagnification. Mercury poisoning happened this way in Minamata , Japan , now called Minamata disease.
In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency is charged with regulating and managing mercury contamination.
Additionally, the Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act , passed in , phases out the use of mercury in batteries, and provides for the efficient and cost-effective disposal of many types of used batteries.
The United States Clean Air Act , passed in , put mercury on a list of toxic pollutants that need to be controlled to the greatest possible extent.
Thus, industries that release high concentrations of mercury into the environment agreed to install maximum achievable control technologies MACT.
In March , the EPA promulgated a regulation  that added power plants to the list of sources that should be controlled and instituted a national cap and trade system.
States were given until November to impose stricter controls, but after a legal challenge from several states, the regulations were struck down by a federal appeals court on 8 February The rule was deemed not sufficient to protect the health of persons living near coal-fired power plants, given the negative effects documented in the EPA Study Report to Congress of The EPA announced new rules for coal-fired power plants on 22 December In the European Union , the directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment see RoHS bans mercury from certain electrical and electronic products, and limits the amount of mercury in other products to less than ppm.
The ban applies to new devices only, and contains exemptions for the health care sector and a two-year grace period for manufacturers of barometers.
Satisfactory alternatives to Hg in products are available, and it is therefore fitting to induce a ban. Products containing mercury were banned in Sweden in In , Denmark also banned dental mercury amalgam,  except for molar masticating surface fillings in permanent adult teeth.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mercury metal. For other things called "mercury", see Mercury disambiguation. Chemical element with atomic number Mercury minerals and Category: Mercury poisoning and Mercury cycle.
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Archived from the original on 24 August Retrieved 16 June From Mercury collaborated with Morgan Fisher performed with Queen in concert during the Hot Space leg ,  and from onward Mercury collaborated with Mike Moran in the studio and Spike Edney in concert.
He used concert grand pianos and, occasionally, other keyboard instruments such as the harpsichord. From onward, he also made frequent use of synthesisers in the studio.
Queen guitarist Brian May claims that Mercury was unimpressed with his own abilities at the piano and used the instrument less over time because he wanted to walk around onstage and entertain the audience.
Songs like " Ogre Battle " and " Crazy Little Thing Called Love " were composed on the guitar; the latter featured Mercury playing rhythm guitar on stage and in the studio.
In addition to his work with Queen, Mercury put out two solo albums and several singles. Although his solo work was not as commercially successful as most Queen albums, the two off-Queen albums and several of the singles debuted in the top 10 of the UK Music Charts.
The song was originally recorded in , when it was included on the soundtrack for the restoration of the Fritz Lang film Metropolis.
Bad Guy and Barcelona Bad Guy as "outstanding from start to finish" and expressed his view that Mercury "did a commendable job of stretching into uncharted territory".
Many critics were uncertain what to make of the album; one referred to it as "the most bizarre CD of the year".
In addition to the two solo albums, Mercury released several singles, including his own version of the hit " The Great Pretender " by the Platters , which debuted at No.
The album debuted in the UK top In the early s, Mercury had a long-term relationship with Mary Austin, whom he met through guitarist Brian May.
He lived with Austin for several years in West Kensington , London. By the mids, he had begun an affair with a male American record executive at Elektra Records , and in December , Mercury told Austin of his sexuality, which ended their romantic relationship.
To me, she was my common-law wife. To me, it was a marriage. Hutton said Mercury died wearing the wedding band that Hutton had given him.
While some commentators claimed Mercury hid his sexual orientation from the public,    others claimed he was "openly gay ".
In the s, he would often distance himself from his partner, Jim Hutton, during public events. Some have claimed Mercury was bisexual ; for example, in regard to the creation of Celebrate Bisexuality Day , Wendy Curry said: We all loved the great bisexual, Freddie Mercury.
His birthday was in September, so why not Sept? We wanted a weekend day to ensure the most people would do something.
It fell on a weekend day, so, poof! We had a day. Although he cultivated a flamboyant stage personality, Mercury was shy and retiring when not performing, particularly around people he did not know well,    and granted very few interviews.
Mercury once said of himself: So entertaining and generous. He played some tennis, lounged by the pool, and ventured out to the odd gay club or bar at night.
Mercury denied he had the disease. Mercury and his inner circle of colleagues and friends continually denied the stories.
May said of Mercury: I want to just sing this and do it and when I am gone you can finish it off. He [Freddie] was one of the funniest people I ever encountered.
I was laughing most of the time, with him. After the conclusion of his work with Queen in June , Mercury retired to his home in Kensington , west London.
His former partner, Mary Austin, was a particular comfort in his final years, and in the last few weeks made regular visits to look after him.
I felt it correct to keep this information private to date to protect the privacy of those around me. However, the time has come now for my friends and fans around the world to know the truth and I hope that everyone will join with me, my doctors and all those worldwide in the fight against this terrible disease.
My privacy has always been very special to me and I am famous for my lack of interviews. Please understand this policy will continue.
On the evening of 24 November , just over 24 hours after issuing the statement, Mercury died at the age of 45 at his home in Kensington.
Mercury bequeathed the vast majority of his wealth, including his home and recording royalties, to Mary Austin, and the remainder to his parents and sister.
The outer walls of Garden Lodge in 1 Logan Place became a shrine to Mercury, with mourners paying tribute by covering the walls in graffiti messages.
Since his death, Queen were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in , and all four band members were inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in This is where he had written and recorded his last songs at Mountain Studios.
Featuring tracks such as " Too Much Love Will Kill You " and " Heaven for Everyone ", the album also contains the song " Mother Love ", the last vocal recording Mercury made prior to his death, which he completed using a drum machine, over which May, Taylor, and Deacon later added the instrumental track.
However, he never made it back into the studio, so May later recorded the final verse of the song. In addition, the site of the discovery is very near to where Mercury spent most of his childhood.
The airline Norwegian painted the tail fin of two of its aircraft with a portrait of Mercury to mark what would have been his 71st birthday in September Elizabeth Taylor spoke of Mercury as "an extraordinary rock star who rushed across our cultural landscape like a comet shooting across the sky".
For instance, in a vote to determine who the UK public considers the greatest British people in history, Mercury was ranked 58 in the list of the Greatest Britons , broadcast by the BBC.
The biographical film Bohemian Rhapsody was, at its release, the highest-grossing musical biographical film of all time. The Kenny Everett Story , first broadcast in October He was portrayed by actor James Floyd.
Quotations related to Freddie Mercury at Wikiquote. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. British singer-songwriter and record producer.
Stone Town , Sultanate of Zanzibar. Kensington , London, England. Freddie Bulsara Larry Lurex . In the 17th century, Bulsar was one of the five centres of the Zoroastrian religion the other four were also in what is today Gujarat and consequently "Bulsara" is a relatively common name amongst Parsi Zoroastrians.
British Indian" and "Race: The Parsis are an ethnic group of Persian origin and have lived on the Indian Subcontinent for over a thousand years.
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